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The Water Pump (Vodovzvodnaya) Tower

The Water Pump (Vodovzvodnaya) Tower in Moscow Kremlin The circular Vodovzvodnaya Tower, notable for the elegant classical and pseudo-Gothic detail of its exterior decoration, is deservedly considered one of the most beautiful towers of the citadel's ensemble. Erected in 1488 by the architect Antonio Gilardi, this southwest corner tower held special significance for the defence of the entire Kremlin, as it protected the mouth of the Neglinnaya River. The tower acquired its current name in 1633, when Englishman Christopher Galloway installed an underground machine in the tower, with the help of which the Kremlin drew up all its water from the Moskva River through Russia's first pressurised pipe system. The machine apparently cost several barrels of gold.

The top of the tower is crowned by a ruby-red star, erected in 1937 in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the October Revolution. The height of the tower is 61.5 meters, including the star.

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